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Flora and Fauna in Tajikistan

The fauna of Tajikistan is diverse. Animals that live here have adapted to the peculiarities of topography and climate.

The code of conduct we have adopted is as follows:

  • Do not feed the animals. Feeding wild animals can put you at risk of injury or worse.
  • Don't touch any wild animals you see. It's not safe for you or for them.
  • Don't get too close. Believe it or not, you are on their territory. Most wild animals don't like you invading their space.
  • Do not provoke or frighten animals. Wild animals are unpredictable and even though he looks innocent, he will protect himself at all costs.
  • Don't stray off the trail after dark.
  • Don't surprise a mother who is with her babies.
  • Do not leave any litter in a camp or around the camp. Dump rubbish far enough away from camp or from a path, or bury it.

It is home to the representatives of typical Nordic animal:

  • a bear,
  • a rabbit,
  • a badger,
  • a weasel,
  • a squirrel,
  • a Siberian ibex.

Many Central Asian and Indo-Tibetan kinds:

  • an Asian leopard,
  • a Himalayan snow cock,
  • a Tibetan Wolf.

Indian animal species found here porcupine, swallow, oriole, Afghan kinds - mouflon, starling-lane, cobra, lizard, mosquitoes, termites.

Natural conditions are favorable for the development of mammals: carnivores, ungulates (70 species) and reptiles (46 species). A lot of different insects (more than 10 thous. Species), more than 350 species of birds. A distinctive feature of Tajikistan - the relative poverty of fish fauna (40 species), which is explained by the relative youth of the rivers and lakes. Some animals, such as: wild boar, hare, fox, badger, rock partridge, duck India have commercial value.

Ichthyologists bred in floodplain lakes trout perch, and in mountain rivers - native species of trout.

The mountainous terrain and climate determine the richness of diversity and originality of the forms of flora of Tajikistan. There are "representatives" of the north and south, east and west.

 Among the plants, along with native species:

  • saxaul,
  • pistachio,
  • juniper,
  • wormwood
  • thistles  

Тhere are Mediterranean plants:

  • hawthorn,
  • walnut,
  • fig,
  • sycamore.

Tajikistan - one of the centers of the initial distribution of such cultural cereals like rye, wheat.

In the mountains and valleys there are more than 5000 types of plants.

Flora and Fauna in Kyrgyzstan

Diversity of flora in Kyrgyzstan is determined by the altitudinal zoning. Slopes, varying by humidity, create different kinds of vegetation. On northern slopes steppes, meadow-steppes, meadows, bushes and forests are wide spread. On southern slopes, because of dry climate there are no zones of forests and alpine meadows; semi-deserts and deserts prevail here.

Flora of Kyrgyzstan numbers more than 3676 plants of lower species and 3786 plants of higher species. 600 types of useful wild growing flora are found in the territory of the Republic.

The most known plants of Kyrgyz Republic are: 

  • Tulips of Greig 
  • Tulips of Kaufmann 
  • Tulips of Kolpakowsky 
  • Edelweiss 
  • Tien-Shan Fir 
  • Fir of Semyonov 
  • Archa

The most widely spread trees are spruce, juniper (archa), and nut- and fruit-tree forests. There are also spruce, maple, poplar-willow, and birch forests and Tien-Shan rowan-trees grow everywhere. There are walnut forests occupying an area of over 600,000 hectares,  in the South-East of Kyrgyzstan in the Fergana and Chatkal ranges at altitudes between 1000 and 2200 meters a. s. l.

In alpine meadows (at an altitude of 3000 meters a. s. l.) edelweiss, dandelion, Alpine Aster, Semenov onion and primroses grow. Edelweiss is not as rare as it is in Europe. At certain times of the year the mountain sides may be covered with poppies or tulips. About 5 km south of the Jety Orguz sanatoria, is Dolina Svetov (Valley of the flowers) a valley opens out which is ablaze with colour from May — when there are multitudes of poppies — throughout early summer.

In the forests, steppes, and meadows it is possible to find many different species of funguses.

The Fauna is various enough and non-uniform by origin. The basis of fauna of region is made with the kinds typical for the central-Asian and Mediterranean regions. Here it is possible to find more than 500 kinds spinal, including 83 kinds of mammals, 368 kinds of birds, 28 kinds of reptiles, 3 kinds of amphibians, 75 kinds of fishes, 3000 kinds of insects. In summer on the Alpine meadows there is a brown bear, are concentrated the most part of a livestock arkhar, it is a lot of marmots, hares and mountain goats. Wolves are found also. Above a snow line on rocky ledges (up to height of 4,4 km) nest some kinds of birds. At height about 4500 m there are mountain goats, from predators - a snow leopard. Rare kinds of animals such as arkhar, the bison, goat, a red deer, a bear, the deer, a lynx, a snow leopard, are brought in the Red book.

Money exchange in Uzbekistan

What is the currency in Uzbekistan?
The currency of Uzbekistan is the Uzbek sum (UZS).  Banknotes and coins are used in circulation. Banknotes of different denominations, on the back of which are represented architectural monuments of the country. 
With which currency to go to Uzbekistan? 
It is advisable to come to Uzbekistan with dollars and euros. When they are exchanged on the territory of the country, there are no problems. Banks are willing to exchange any of the above currencies for an Uzbek sum. 
Where and how to exchange money in Uzbekistan? 
The exchange offices in Uzbekistan are not too numerous. Usually, they are open in hotels. In addition, foreign exchange transactions are carried out by the banks. Please note that for financial transactions at the bank, you may need identification documents. On the street, so-called «street money changers» never change money - not only will you be offered the most disadvantageous course, and may also face problems with the local police (as such activity in Uzbekistan is considered illegal).    
Use of the credit card. 
In Uzbekistan, the use of bank cards is not very frequent, so it is advisable for tourists to always have money with them. Often the credit cards of the VISA and Master Card payment systems are accepted in the major hotels of the international networks of inexpensive restaurants, sometimes in the most touristic places. Simple shopping centers, cafes, or hotels do not serve bank cards. It is also interesting to note that ATMs are often located only in Tashkent. In Bukhara and Samarkand, there is almost no ATM, so it is better not to rely on the use of a bank card in these cities and to bring money.

Kyrgyzstan traditional food

Kyrgyzstan stood on the crossroads of the Silk Road, and the caravan routes which crossed the territory carried not only goods for trade, but also brought examples of various cultures: Turkish, Persian, Arabian, Indian, Chinese, Russian and European and these mingled with the culture and traditions of Central Asia. As a result Kyrgyz cuisine has absorbed elements from all of the cultures with which it came into contact, and although many dishes that you will find are common throughout Central Asia, it is sill possible to find examples that have preserved their original, national identity.

Meat is central to Kyrgyz cooking - the nomadic way of life did no allow for the growing of fruit and vegetables - although these can be found in abundance in modern Kyrgyzstan. One of the most essential features of Kyrgyz cuisine is that dishes should preserve their taste and appearance. Sauces are intended only to bring out the taste of the dish - not to change it.

Boorsok - pieces of dough, deep fried in boiling oil - is a traditional table "decoration". They are produced in large quantities and spread over the derstokan or table at every major celebration.

Beshbarmak - perhaps the most typical Kyrgyz dish. The dish is meant to be eaten with the hands, not with a knife and fork! "Besh" means five and "Barmak"  - finger. Beshbarmak is served when guests arrive and at almost any festive gathering. This meal consists of noodles, which are mixed with boiled meat but into tiny pieces and served with a medium spicy sauce. Bullion is then poured over the mixture.

Shashlyk and Kebabs - meat cubes on skewers cooked over the embers of burning twigs. Mutton is the meat usually used, but it is possible to find beef, chicken, liver and even pork shashlyk. The meat may simply be freshly sliced or may gave been marinated overnight. Be warned, if the meat is mutton, then almost certainly one of the pieces on the skewer will be pure fat...the dripping fat onto the burning embers is thought to enhance the taste. Shashlyk is usually served with a sprinkling of raw onion, vinegar and lepyoshki.

Plov - rice mixed with boiled, or fried meat, onions and carrots (and sometimes other ingredients such as raisins), all cooked in a semi-hemispherical metal bowl called a kazan over a fire. Plov is a favorite dish in the South and is served to honored guests - the meal is not considered over until it has been served.

Lagman - flat noodles cooked in a stew of tiny pieces of mutton, potatoes, carrots, onions and white radishes. A Russian version, minus the noodles called Shorpo, can often be found.

Basic information about Kyrgyzstan

Located in the heart of Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan is a great mountain barrier between an environment of huge desert and steppes. The landscapes are so diverse, that this small country offers a multitude of reasons to go there. Semi-desert wedged between lakes and alpine forests, unexplored mountains, fertile plains and nomadic traditions have created the peculiarities of Kyrgyzstan.

During the 20th century, Kyrgyzstan was incorporated into the USSR. Nowadays, as an independent republic, Kyrgyzstan is struggling to successfully implement free-market reforms and maintain political and ethnic stability. The Kyrgyz government has been actively pursuing ethnic tolerance and democratization polices. Kyrgyzstan has the most liberal media in the former Soviet Union, while both the Russian and Kyrgyz languages are official in this country of well-educated population and a sizable Russian minority.

Kyrgyzstan has a self-sufficient agricultural sector, rich in mineral resources and with high potential in hydroelectric power generation, while economic ties remain strong with Russia and the other members of the Commonwealth Independent States (CIS).

total: 198,500 sq km 
land: 191,300 sq km 
water: 7,200 sq km

dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

Geography - note:
landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes

Ethnic groups:
Kyrgyz 72.1%, Uzbek 14.3%, Russian 6.8%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, Uygur 1%, other 5.7% (2012 census)

Kyrgyz (official), Russian (official)

Basic information about Nepal

Official Name: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Area: 147,181 sq k

Geography: Nepal is a landlocked country located between China, in the North, and India in East, West and South. Highest point Mt. Everest (8,848m) and lowest Kechana (60m above sea level

Capital: Kathmandu is the capital city of Nepal. Kathmandu is a valley surrounded by four hills – Fulchowki, Chandragiri, Shivapuri and Nagarjun. Kathmandu valley has three major cities Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Patan. Situated at the altitude of 4,500 feet above sea level, Kathmandu is home to seven UNESCO World Heritage sites. Before the unification of Nepal in the 18th Century, the three cities were independent states ruled by the Malla kings.

Population: 29.3 million (according to the census of 2010

Language: Nepali is the national language. However, people speak Newari, Bhiojpuri, and Maithali among others as their mother tongue. People in the urban areas understand English quite well

Climate: Nepal has four seasons, namely, 1. winter (Dec-Feb), 2. Spring (June-Aug), 4.Autumn (Sep-Nov). Nepal can be visited round the year.

Political system: Multi-party system of Democracy

People\religion: Nepal had more than 105 ethnic groups with diverse culture, traditions and lifestyle. Nepali people can be divided into two distinct groups:Indo-Burman and Mongoloid. Nepal is a secular state with majority of people following Hinduism. However, people practicing Buddhism, Christianity and Islam among others live in a good harmony

Administrative Division: Though Nepal is a federal republic, federal states are yet to be carved. Nepal is divided into five development regions, 14 Zones and 75 Districts

Geographical Division: Geographically, Nepal is divided into Hills, Mountain and Tarai regions.

Entry Procedures:
All foreigners, except the Indians, need to have a valid passport and a visa to enter Nepal. Visas can be availed from Nepali diplomatic missions and consular offices station abroad or upon arrival at Tribhuvan International Airport and other entry points.

Basic information about Mongolia

Mongolia is a landlocked country in Northern Asia, strategically located between China and Russia.

The geography of Mongolia is varied with the Gobi Desert to the south and with cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Much of Mongolia consists of steppes and much of the Gobi Desert. The terrain is one of mountains and rolling plateaus, with a high degree of relief. Overall, the land slopes from the high Altai Mountains of the west and the north to plains and depressions in the east and the south. The Khüiten Peak in extreme western Mongolia on the Chinese border is the highest point (4,374 meters).

Its area is 1,564,116 sq km (ranked 19th in the world) and the average attitude is 1580m. The highest point is Mount of Khuiten culminating at 4374 m altitude in the northwest. 

It has the lowest density in the world is 1,6hab / km ². 

Landscape: Mountains dominate two thirds of the country, nearly 8% of the territory is covered by forest and most landscapes are wide open prairies, plains and desert. Taiga and forest steppe also cover much of the country. 

Climate: The country has a continental climate that is changing very quickly. There are four clear-cut seasons! The temperature range is about 70 ° C between summer and winter. Mongolia is a remarkably sunny country (with relative sunshine 270 days / year). At night you can see an amazing display of stars. Winter is very long (November-April) and it is very cold in winter due to the high altitude of the country. In summer it is warmer in the Gobi in the south and in winter it is north of the country the lowest temperatures found. 

Population: Mongolia is home to a wide variety of ethnic groups and 2.7 million inhabitants according to the census of 2010, 60% of the population is under 35 years of which 60% are under 18! The number of newborns is growing very rapidly (Baby Boom). The government is pro-natalist policy to increase the population. 

Government: Mongolia has a parliamentary government with a president. The president is elected in general elections. Parliamentary and presidential elections are held every four years. The president can not make more than two terms. 

Administrative subdivisions: Mongolia is divided into 21 aimags (provinces), which are composed of 315 sums (small villages). There are two other major cities after the capital Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan and Erdenet. Each aimag has a capital where infrastructure is more developed. 

Telecommunications: Mongolia, most hotels and business centers offer direct international line, as well as telex, fax and internet connection. The most popular companies in Mongolia communication: Mobicom and Unitel-GSM, Skytel, Gmobile-CDMA. 

Currency: Tugrog (MNT). Currently (01/2012), 1 euro = 1800 MNT 

All times are UTC / GMT +8 hours 

Energy: There are a lot of coal for electricity generation. Part of the electricity is imported from Russia. Wind and solar energy are used locally on a small scale in Mongolia, but the potential for expansion in this area is considerable. 

Capital: The largest city in the country is Ulaanbaatar ("Red Hero"). Over 40% of the total population lives there. It became a city in 2006 with one million inhabitants. It is the economic, political, educational and cultural center of Mongolia. 

Mongolian language: the Mongols speak their own language, Mongolian. It is a language of Altaic origin as Turkish, Japanese and Korean. Mongolian has some regional differences in pronunciation, causing several local dialects. Although the Mongols of Inner Mongolia (China) speak Mongolian, they have a different accent. Kazakhs, the minority group in the country, speak Kazakh. The Cyrillic alphabet has been used since 1940 The youth of today are relearning the traditional Mongolian script Uigurjin which had not been used since 1940 in school. There are some newspapers and magazines that are published in traditional Mongolian script.

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